Frankincense and Myrrh: What is the Difference?

Frankincense and myrrh are time-honored resins with deep historical and cultural significance, known for their distinctive aromas and uses in traditional rituals. Both substances are derived from the sap of trees in the Burseraceae family and have been traded in the Middle East and North Africa for thousands of years. Understanding the differences between frankincense and myrrh can enhance your appreciation of their unique properties and uses.

To tell them apart, consider their origins and the sensory experiences they offer. Frankincense, harvested from the Boswellia tree, often yields a sweet, warm, and woody aroma, making it a popular choice for incense and perfumes. Myrrh, on the other hand, comes from the Commiphora tree and typically presents a more earthy and slightly bitter scent. These differences not only affect their respective roles in perfumery and aromatherapy but also their symbolic meanings throughout history.

Though both resins share common uses, their individual characteristics are distinct in texture, color, and therapeutic potential. Frankincense is usually lighter in color and has a granular texture, while myrrh tends to be darker and more viscous. While frankincense is often associated with purification and spirituality, myrrh has been traditionally used for its purported healing properties. Whether employed for their aromatic qualities or potential health benefits, understanding the nuances between frankincense and myrrh can guide you in selecting the right one for your needs.

Historical Significance of Frankincense and Myrrh

Frankincense and myrrh hold a renowned place in history, serving as symbols of wealth, divinity, and medicine. Their uses and value were recognized by ancient cultures and are detailed in historical records, including biblical scriptures.

Cultural and Religious Impact

Frankincense, a aromatic resin, became a staple in religious ceremonies for its fragrant smoke, believed to carry prayers to the heavens. Ancient Egyptians used it in the embalming process, valuing its preservative and fragrance qualities. Similarly, myrrh has been used throughout history in religious rituals, often for anointing in the Christian tradition. The famous biblical account of the three wise men or Magi visiting Bethlehem to offer gifts to the infant Jesus mentions frankincense and myrrh as two of the precious items, alongside gold. This highlights the substances’ association with divine recognition and worship well into Christmas narratives.

Tree wise man offers gift to Jesus

Temples across different civilizations, such as the Hebrews and Romans, burnt these resins during ceremonies. The smoke of frankincense was a symbol of a deity’s presence and favor in both Egyptian and Judeo-Christian contexts.

Medicinal Uses Throughout History

Historically, frankincense and myrrh were more than just ceremonial items; they had practical uses, especially within the field of medicine. The ancient Egyptians documented their use of myrrh as a salve for wounds, while Greeks and Romans utilized these resins for their antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. In the medical compendia of the Roman Empire, myrrh was recommended for a variety of ailments, including oral and digestive issues.

In the ancient world, these substances were also thought to have an effect on the spirit, with myrrh in particular being used to help emotional imbalances. Community healers often administered these resins not just for physical wellness, but for mental and spiritual health, suggesting a holistic view of medicine in ancient cultures.

Origins and Harvesting

In your exploration of the distinct properties of frankincense and myrrh, it’s essential to understand the specific trees they derive from and the meticulous process involved in harvesting their valued resins.

Boswellia Tree for Frankincense

Boswellia trees, the source of frankincense, flourish in the arid mountain regions of countries like Oman. The resin is harvested by making careful incisions into the tree’s bark, allowing sap to exude. This sap hardens upon exposure to air, forming “tears” that are later collected. Remarkably, the best quality frankincense is tapped twice a year and takes the form of pale, amber-colored tears when hardened.

  • Harvesting Period: Twice a year
  • Region: Mainly Oman and the Horn of Africa
  • Color of Resin: Pale, amber
  • Collection: Hardened tears from the tree
Boswellia Tree in Socotra Island

Commiphora Tree for Myrrh

Contrastingly, myrrh is tapped from Commiphora trees, which are notably smaller and thornier than their Boswellia counterparts. Similar to frankincense, myrrh is procured by slicing the bark, but the resin is often darker and may be glossy. Myrrh resin, used since ancient times, tends to be more opaque and can be identified by its deep, reddish-brown tears once solidified.

  • Harvesting Technique: Slicing the bark
  • Tree Characteristics: Small, thorny
  • Resin Appearance: Dark, glossy, reddish-brown
  • Uses: Incense, essential oils, medicinal purposes
Commiphora Tree in Yemen

Chemical Composition and Properties

Their distinct chemical profiles are characterized by various compounds that contribute to their unique aromatic and medicinal qualities.

Frankincense Chemistry

Frankincense is derived from the Boswellia sacra tree. The primary active compounds in frankincense are boswellic acids, which have been studied for their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. Notable for their potential to inhibit pro-inflammatory compounds, these acids have sparked interest in medical research, particularly concerning their impact on colorectal cancer cells.

To ascertain the constituent elements in frankincense, chemists at places like LECO have employed gas chromatography—a method that results in structured chromatograms, enabling the precise identification of molecules.

Key Compounds in Frankincense

Compound ClassExamplesProperties
Boswellic AcidsAcetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acidAnti-inflammatory, Antitumor
Terpenoidsα-Pinene, LimoneneAromatic, Therapeutic

Myrrh Chemistry

Myrrh, on the other hand, is a resin extracted from the Commiphora tree. Similar to frankincense, it also contains a rich array of essential oils, but it is distinct in its chemical makeup. Scientists, like those from the University of Florence, have identified various terpenoids within myrrh that contribute to its aromatic and potential medicinal properties.

Like frankincense, gas chromatography is utilized to analyze myrrh’s complex chemistry, revealing its diverse and potent chemicals that underpin its traditional and modern uses.

Key Compounds in Myrrh

Compound ClassExamplesProperties
SesquiterpenesCurzerene, LindestreneAnti-inflammatory, Analgesic
TerpenoidsEugenol, M-cresolAntiseptic, Aromatic

Your understanding of the differences in the chemical composition between frankincense and myrrh can guide you in their respective uses, whether for aromatherapy, religious practices, or exploring their therapeutic potential.

Uses and Research

Frankincense and myrrh, with their storied past, have evolved to be more than just historical artifacts. Today, they are making their mark in both traditional and modern settings, from their medicinal properties to their aromatic allure in cosmetics.

Medicinal and Therapeutic Applications

Scientists have taken a renewed interest in the healing properties of frankincense and myrrh. Specifically, research has highlighted frankincense’s potential anti-inflammatory benefits, which may prove beneficial for conditions like arthritis. It is also being examined for its antineoplastic properties in cancer research, with some studies suggesting it could play a role in eliminating unhealthy cells.

Myrrh is traditionally renowned for its painkilling action and is being studied for its application in managing pain and inflammation associated with arthritis. Moreover, its compounds are being evaluated for their antioxidant and potentially antiarthritic effects.

Here is some additional information about the research pertaining to these substances:

  • Frankincense: According to current studies, like those summarized by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, frankincense may inhibit certain enzymes that contribute to inflammation, offering possibilities for new anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Myrrh: Research has also considered myrrh’s pharmacological use, particularly its sesquiterpenoids, which could possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties useful in medicinal formulations.

Industrial and Cosmetic Uses

In the industrial and cosmetic spheres, the allure of frankincense and myrrh lies in their distinctive aromas. These scents are deeply ingrained in the production of luxurious perfumes, and their fragrance profiles bring a timeless essence to modern fragrance applications. These resins find their way into an array of cosmetic products, leveraging not only their scent but also their purported skin-health benefits due to their antioxidant content.

The aromatic and medicinal qualities of frankincense and myrrh have thus transitioned into contemporary uses, with their fragrance defending a spot in high-end perfumery and their bioactive compounds being incorporated into cosmetics for their potential skin-protecting effects. Advancements in research continue to unlock the versatility of these ancient resins, reinforcing their value in today’s health and beauty industries.

Differences in Aroma

When distinguishing between frankincense and myrrh, it’s useful to understand their unique scents.

Citrusy and woodsyEarthy and slightly spicy
Slightly sweet and fruity notesBolder, smokier quality

Frankincense often presents a fresh, uplifting aroma due to its citrusy and woodsy notes. This scent can also carry a slight sweetness, reminiscent of fruit or honey. It’s light enough not to overwhelm your senses but distinct enough to be instantly recognized.

In contrast, myrrh tends to elicit a deeper, more grounding fragrance. It has an earthy base, complemented by a hint of spice, which can be perceived as warmer and richer compared to frankincense. Myrrh’s aroma carries a heavier and smokier character, often described as balsamic.

While both fragrances can be intense, your response to the scent can help you tell them apart. If you’re catching a cologne-like freshness, it’s likely frankincense. If it’s a bit musky and warm, then you’re probably encountering myrrh.

Remember, these essential oils are often used in combinations for fragrance layering, which can make their differentiation more complex. However, when in isolation, their unique aromatic qualities are unmistakable.

Frankincense and Myrrh in Incense

Frankincense and myrrh, renowned for their rich aromas and cultural significance, are utilized in various religious and spiritual rituals.


  • In the Middle East, particularly in countries like Oman and Yemen, frankincense is a staple in daily life, often used in households for its fragrance and religious rituals.
  • In Western countries, it’s commonly found in churches, especially within Christian practices, symbolizing prayer and sanctity.
  • In Japan, it’s blended with other traditional ingredients to create subtle and complex scents, often used in Kodo, the Japanese “Way of Fragrance”, which is a refined art of appreciating incense.


  • In the Middle East and North Africa, myrrh is traditionally used in religious ceremonies, both in Islam and Christianity, and is also used for its medicinal properties.
  • In Western contexts, like with frankincense, myrrh is often associated with religious practices, particularly in Christian liturgies.
  • In Asian countries, myrrh is used in traditional medicine and as an incense ingredient, valued for its grounding aroma.
Frankincense Burn in Hot Charcoal

When burning these incenses:

  1. Prepare your incense burner or heat-resistant surface.
  2. Light a charcoal disc until it’s entirely heated.
  3. Sprinkle small grains of either frankincense or myrrh onto the charcoal.
  4. Allow the resin to burn and the smoke to release fragrantly into your space.

Cultural and Commercial Value

Frankincense and myrrh have long been commodities of trade that carried significant cultural and commercial value. These aromatic resins have played a central role in both the economies and the rituals of ancient civilizations.

Trade and Economy in the East and West

Frankincense and myrrh were once as valuable as gold, especially in the Middle East and the Western world. The trade routes established for these commodities were vital to the economies of ancient societies, such as those in the Arabian Peninsula. Historical records suggest that during the heyday of their use, frankincense and myrrh were central to the trade relationships between the East and West.

Bulky caravans would navigate the incense route, passing through harsh deserts to deliver these treasured items. Your understanding of global trade networks is enriched by recognizing how these aromatic resins linked disparate cultures; they were among the luxuries desired by royalty and wealthy patrons, which only accentuated their standing in a globally-connected marketplace.

Symbolism in Gift Giving and Rituals

Symbolically, frankincense and myrrh carry extensive weight in various cultural practices, particularly in religious ceremonies and gift giving. The gifts of the three wise men to baby Jesus—frankincense, myrrh, and gold—are perhaps the most famous symbolic use of these substances, as mentioned in the account by Smithsonian Magazine.

Frankincense, often associated with deity and worship, and myrrh, commonly linked to healing and embalming, were both used extensively in ancient rituals. Gifts of frankincense and myrrh were not simply practical gifts; they carried deep spiritual connotations. Your grasp of their historical context is deepened when you consider their use in religious and state ceremonies, often to denote honor and reverence.

In modern times, frankincense continues to be burned in many religious rituals, and myrrh is still used in traditional medicines. These resins have transitioned from ancient riches to contemporary commodities, yet they maintain their allure as symbols of wealth, spirituality, and health, grounding you in a heritage that spans millennia.

Identification and Quality Assessment

When you seek to identify and assess the quality of frankincense and myrrh, you’re delving into a detailed process that distinguishes the purity and authenticity of these ancient resins. This process often requires scientific analysis to ensure accuracy.

Methods for Assessing Purity

To assess the purity of frankincense and myrrh, you must be aware of the specific compound classes inherent to each resin. Gas chromatography is a primary method for analyzing essential oils extracted from these resins. An application note from LECO reveals that the Pegasus BT 4D is used to characterize the complex mixtures within these aromatic compounds. Through PEGASUS BT 4D, you can identify the individual compounds and determine the purity by observing the presence or absence of expected elements.

  • Frankincense: Look for markers like alpha-pinene and limonene.
  • Myrrh: Seek indicators such as furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and curzerene.

Differentiating Frankincense and Myrrh

When differentiating frankincense from myrrh, understand that both are tree resins but from different species. Frankincense is derived from the Boswellia tree, while myrrh comes from the Commiphora tree. To tell them apart:

  • Visual Inspection: Frankincense is typically more golden or yellowish, whereas myrrh tends to be darker, often reddish-brown.
  • Texture: Myrrh is generally more brittle and can be crumbly if pure.
  • Scent Profile: Frankincense has a sweeter, woody scent; myrrh’s fragrance is sharper, more bitter, with an earthy tone.

By applying scientific methods including chromatography and careful sensory evaluation, you can confidently characterize and compare these resins.


Overall, frankincense and myrrh have been valued for their aromatic and therapeutic properties since ancient times and continue to be used in modern perfumery and medicine. Scientific methods like gas chromatography are employed to ensure purity and quality. Despite their similarities, each resin’s unique characteristics—from scent to chemical composition—highlight their distinct identities in cultural, commercial, and therapeutic contexts.

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